Lowering the Boiling Curve of Biodiesel by Metathesis

There exist some disadvantages when Biodiesel is used in vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF). Especially during the regeneration phase, fuel bedabbles the piston walls and is taken over into the engine oil. Unlike fossil diesel fuel, biodiesel can not evaporate out of the engine oil because of its high boiling range. This leads to oil dilution and, furthermore, the formation of oligomers and oil sludge. The Thünen Institute of Agricultural Technology and the Technology Transfer Center Automotive Coburg (TAC) of the Coburg University of Applied Sciences modified the boiling behaviour of biodiesel by metathesis. more...

Lowering of the Boiling Curve of Biodiesel by Metathesis

The boiling line of diesel fuels is relevant for the combustion in modern engines. Biodiesel shows a boiling behavior that is very diff erent to diesel fuel. To adapt the boiling line, metathesis reactions were carried out. Different products were obtained by varying the catalysts and the ratio of biodiesel to 1-hexene. As 20%-blends in diesel fuel some metathesis products were quite similar to the diesel fuel boiling line. The metathesis fuels were tested regarding interactions with other fuel components and engine oil. Additionally, the material compatibility was in focus. Corrosion effects on copper were within the specifi cation for diesel fuel. more...

UFOP-funded project for the approval of biodiesel as a pure fuel for DEUTZ Agripower engines

The DEUTZ Agripower engines of the series TCD 7.8 L6, TCD 6.1 L6 and TCD 4.1 L4 can be approved for operation with biodiesel as a pure fuel. This is the result of the project successfully completed by DEUTZ AG. In the course of this project, the engines were subjected to extensive field tests in practice, with a conclusive result for DEUTZ common rail injection systems and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. more...

Biodiesel offers great internal engine potential for reducing particulate emissions

Tests carried out by regineering GmbH, Denkendorf, Germany, on a 1-cylinder test engine confirm great potential for reducing particulates by using biodiesel as opposed to diesel. The reason for this is the specific physical and chemical properties of biodiesel, which combine very well with modern diesel engines. Modern diesel engines are equipped with highly complex engine controls, which enable the engine operational mode to adapt to the specific properties of the respective fuel. more...

Final Report: Lowering the boiling curve of biodiesel by metathesis

In general, pure biodiesel is not applicable in modern diesel engines with particulate filters, as the particulate filter regeneration process would lead to a dilution of engine lubricant by the biofuel. Also a larger share of biogenic components in the fuel than the 7% that are permissible according to the diesel fuel standard are regarded as critical by vehicle manufacturers. more...

Comments and summary of the European Commission’s proposal to modify the EU biofuel policies of 17th October 2012

The Deutsche Biomasseforschungszentrum (German Research Centre for Biomass – DBFZ) was commissioned by the Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e. V. (UFOP) to explain the proposals by the EU Commission regarding the amendment of the Renewable Energies Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive in a technical paper, with commentary on the most important key points. more...

Optimisation of the Post-injection during the Particle Filter Regeneration can reduce the Fuel Entry into the Engine Oil of Passenger Car Diesel Engines

Optimisation of thr Post-injection during the Particle Filter Regeneration can reduce the Fuel Entry into the Engine Oil of Passenger Car Diesel Engines. The effects of the splitting of the engine-internal „late” post-injection in regeneration mode during the operation with the fuel blends B7, B10 and B30 (admixture content of RME from 7, 10 and 30 %-vol.) on the fuel entry into the engine oil as well as on the change in the oil viscosity were examined in stationary test runs at the Institute for Mobile Systems IMS, Chair of Reciprocating Machines at the Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg. The project was financed by the Union zur Förderung von Öl- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP). The bench tests, which were carried out in an operating point with small engine load in the regenerating mode, showed that the fuel entry increased into the engine oil with increasing RME content of the fuel. In this case the RME-concentration increased in the engine oil whereas the DF-concentration decreased. more...

UFOP Filling Station Study: Germany-wide filling station sampling of „standard“ diesel fuels – comparative investigation of summer and winter fuel 2013

At 89 %, rapeseed oil is, as expected, the most important raw material of the biodiesel component in diesel fuel, followed by palm kernel oil at 6 percent and palm and soya oil at 4 and 1 percent, respectively. This is the result of the renewed investigation of the raw material composition of diesel fuel at public filling stations commissioned by the UFOP. more...

Environmental and economic assessment of biomethanol for the biodiesel production

The environmental assessment of biofuel production and use is becoming increasingly relevant as a result of the current political conditions at the European and national level. As a result of the intense public debate about the sustainability of an increased biofuel use, the European Commission introduced sustainability criteria for biofuels by the means of the EU Directive 2009/28/EC (RES-D). With the enactment of this directive and its implementation within Germany under the terms of the Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance (Biokraft-NachV), compliance with specific savings targets for greenhouse gas emissions will become obligatory for biofuels [1], [2]. For this reason it will be of vital importance for biofuel producer to be able to identify and make use of possible environmental optimisation potentials in the greenhouse gas balance of their fuel. more...

Element pollution of exhaust aftertreatment systems by using biodiesel (Offprint MTZ 6/2012)

Biodiesel is a particularly attractive fuel for agricultural machinery. However, the introduction of new emission standards has made the use of exhaust gas treatment systems in agricultural vehicles essential. The combination of biodiesel and exhaust gas treatment causes problems, because the biodiesel contains traces of inorganic elements These turn into ash during the combustion process in the engine, which can result in permanent damage to the components of the exhaust gas treatment system. Deutz and ASG have investigated the impact of current grades of biodiesel on the systems in real-life operation. more...

Preliminary Study

Since the agricultural price explosion of 2007/08 for basic foodstuffs and the subsequent decline in 2009, intense discussions have commenced concerning the potential negative consequences of high and volatile prices for world nutrition. Public and published opinion also appears to clearly point the finger at other guilty parties. The UN special correspondent de SCHUTTER, for example, maintains that the biofuel subsidy destroys the rainforest and drives food prices higher (Agra- Europe, Nov. 2011). And the Welthungerhilfe together with IFPRI clearly determine the following in their report on the World Hunger Index: “Biofuels are the main cause for higher and more volatile agricultural prices” (Oct. 2011). Contrary to this somewhat general fingerpointing, extensive literature on the factors determining the price level and price volatilities of agricultural commodities has meanwhile been published, which presents a somewhat more differentiated picture than the current discussion. more...

AGQM-project report: "Recommendation for a Mexican biodiesel standard and the Infrastructure required for its handling"

Since governments and societies becoming more and more aware of the geopolitical, economical and environmental risks of oil dependency biofuels are gaining a rising attention. In Mexico the use of biodiesel as an additive to improve the lubricity of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel is considered. As the biodiesel quality affects the properties of the final blended fuel agreeing on common standard for biodiesel properties is an important step towards the creation of a national biodiesel market. more...

Final Report – A short study to assess the metal, phosphorus and sulfer content in biodiesel

The trace element content in fuels plays an important role in the release of exhaust after treatment systems. All metals which are emitted with the engine combustion can increase the exhaust gas back pressure in the after treatment system to inadmissible values due to the formation of ashes. Additionally, exhaust after treatment systems metal coatings and catalysts are contaminated and/or deactivated by phosphorus and alkali element. Consequently, in the project promoted by the Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP) and the Verband der Deutschen Biokraftstoffindustrie e.V. (VDB) “Determination of the emissions and the particle size distribution (fine dust) in the exhaust gas of a modern Euro-4-commercial vehicle engine with SCR emission control using biodiesel”1 (project manager Prof. Dr. Munack/Prof. Dr. Krahl, vTI Braunschweig), it was established that the ageing of the SCR catalyst, caused by the use of biodiesel with a content of 10 mg/kg phosphorus, was substantially accelerated with continuous 1000 operating hours. The content in RME corresponded to the maximum permissible limit value according to standard DIN EN 14214 (2003). more...

Influence of the phosphorus content in rapeseed oil methyl esters during a 1000 hours endurance test on the function of a SCR-system measured by exhaust gas emissions and health effects

One characteristic of modern society is the striving for flexibility and mobility in all areas of the daily life. World-wide a steady rising of traffic can be noticed. In the EU, since many years the traffic increases much stronger than the production capacity. This traffic growth is dominated by the road haulage. Because of its efficiency and robustness the diesel engine became the dominating propulsion principle for trucks. The discussion about diesel exhaust related health effects led to a worldwide tightening up of the exhaust gas regulations, especially for heavy duty vehicles. Besides the emissions of particulate matter the limits for nitrogen oxides were substantially reduced. One possibility to keep these limits are engine measures. However, the problem is trade-off between particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. Therefore secondary measures have to be used to fulfill the regulations. The SCR technique (selective catalytic reduction) is one method that is well proven to reduce nitrogen oxides. In the result nitrogen oxides can be reduced to 95% and particulate matter up to 30%. Gaseous ammonia (NH3), ammonia in aqueous solution or urea in aqueous solution can be used as reducing agents. Manufacturers of heavy duty engines already have introduced it to the market. more...

Comparison of biodiesel with different diesel fuels regarding exhaust gas emissions and health effects

The more stringent regulations for diesel engine emissions lead to the requirement that both fuels and engines must be developed jointly. In the future, so-called designer fuels will help to achieve the stringent limits. In this research, conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel, Swedish low sulfur diesel fuel MK1 and a specially designed diesel fuel were compared using a DaimlerChrysler diesel engine, running the modes of the ECE-R 49 test cycle. The results for regulated and non-regulated gaseous emissions, particulate matter size distributions as well as mutagenic effects of particle extracts are reported. more...

Environmental Effects of Modern Diesel Fuels and Their Blends

In its 2004 report on sustainable development the previous German government reached the conclusion for fuels that by 2020 the increase in efficiency in diesel and Otto engines as well as innovative power generation concepts will play a central role. Biofuels such as biodiesel will in the future particularly be incorporated as components of blends. The same conclusion was reached by the previous German government for the future use of both Gas to Liquid fuels (GTL) as well as Biomass to Liquid fuels (BTL). Concerning the above formulated theses, the new German government will probably come to a similar assessment, too. more...

Biodiesel doesn’t lead to higher emissions of ultra-fine particles

Final Report to the Research Project „Measurement of ultra-fine particles in the exhaust gas of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel“. Measurements of exhaust gas were carried out for a heavy-duty engine using four different fuels: biodiesel (B100); fossil diesel fuel; Shell V-Power® diesel fuel; and a blend of Aral Ultimate® diesel fuel with 5% biodiesel. The aim of the underlying research project – entitled “Measurement of ultra-fine particles in the exhaust gas of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel” – was to examine in detail the increase in ultra-fine particles that is observed when biodiesel is used instead of fossil diesel fuel. An assessment of the risks of exposure to ultrafine particles was expected as the outcome of the research. The german report can be download on the following page. more...