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List of UFOP biodiesel publication / status Jan 2021

This flyer offers an overview over publications on subjects such as biofuel policy, GHG balances and biodiesel, which are available for free download on UFOP's website.

UFOP report "Biodiesel & Co. 2019/2020" status report published

Berlin, 6 October 2020: The progress report provides information on national and international biofuel policy issues relevant to the Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (UFOP) in the reporting period. The almost 40-page report is supplemented by comprehensive statistics on national and international biodiesel production, on the current biofuel quota regulations enshrined in law in the member states and by the publication of excerpts from the statistics from the experience and evaluation report of the Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE). All sources are linked to further information.

Final Report: Investigation into the interactions between fuels and fuel-carrying vehicle components in PHEV

When up to 10% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) is added to diesel fuel, operational reliability is maintained even if the fuel is stored in the vehicle tank for a period of 9 months. This requires a suitable additive to stabilise the fuel mixture. This is the primary result of the investigations into the ageing behaviour of fuels in vehicle tanks over relatively long storage times, in near-application conditions. They were part of the research project "Fuels for PHEV vehicles" (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, PHEV), which investigated interactions between fuels and their chemical components and fuel-carrying vehicle components.

Biodiesel from rapeseed oil as an integral component of pioneering diesel fuels - project results confirm development potential of RME

In this project, co-funded by UFOP, the University of Applied Sciences Coburg has investigated future regenerative fuels with regard to their miscibility and ageing behaviour in order to be able to make better predictions about the miscibility of fuels. Based on solubility parameters and a developed algorithm, the miscibility of RME, OME as an option of a renewable synthetic fuel and HVO was derived theoretically and verified experimentally.

Report on Market Suppy: Sustainable Intensification of arable Production for Food Security and Climate Protection

The Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (UFOP) would like to take the publication of the fourth edition of the Report on Global Market Supply as an occasion to indicate the particular importance of agriculture in the production of sustainable foodstuffs and renewable raw materials. Climate change dictates more productivity and efficiency while taking the requirements of sustainable production into account at the same time. Biofuels from cultivated biomass play a leading role when these are being produced according to the legal specifications of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II).

Oilseeds & fats Crops and Lipids (OCL) issue: The significance and perspective of biodiesel production - A European and global view

Since the nineties, the production of biodiesel has increased considerably worldwide. The motivation for this trend developed very differently with a view to the globally important resource production regions. Biofuels, such as biodiesel, are also playing a role regionally within the context of the growing challenge of a global climate change policy. The contribution is an evaluation of the situation and it demonstrates the limits of the development based on different aspects.

UFOP-"Biodiesel" Assessment Report 2018/19 published

The status report explains the relevant topics of the UFOP annual report on national and international biofuel policy, on biofuel accompanying research for UFOP-funded projects, and on biofuel statistics. The report gives a comprehensive overview about the state of the art on national and European biofuel policy. The main topics are the implementation and consequences of the Renewable Energies Directive (2018/2001/EC) and in particular the national framework conditions resulting from the Climate Protection Act. The Federal Cabinet will decide today on this law and the package of measures. These are critically questioned, as is the implementation of the Delegate Ordinance on the Regulation of Raw Materials with a high "iLUC Risk" against the background of the raw material composition of biodiesel consumed in Germany and the European Union (including HVO).

MTZ extra – Development of a Low-Emission Fuel with High Biogenic Content and High Oxidation Stability

Compared to fossil diesel fuel, biodiesel has significantly lower carbon monoxide, particulate mass and hydrocarbon emissions. In contrast, however, there are higher nitrogen oxide emissions and a reduced aging stability. In a joint research project, the Transfer Center for Automotive Technology at Coburg University (TAC) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts in Lemgo (Germany) have analyzed how the oxidation stabi lization of biodiesel by hydrazides can be further improved.

Good reasons for biofuels

Human-caused climate change is already visible and is especially evident in agriculture, as the “drought year” of 2018 clearly demonstrated. Agriculture, however, is not only affected. It is also part of the solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Climate Action Plan 2020 and Climate Action Plan 2050 highlight the challenges of decarbonising road transport.

Report on Global Market Supply

European and world demand for biomass for the purpose of biofuel production in relation to supply in the food and feedstuff markets.

Biodiesel 2017/2018 - UFOP publishes special report

With the special report "Biodiesel 2017/2018", the Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (UFOP) annually summarizes the most important chapters from its annual report on biodiesel. The chapter "Biodiesel & Co" explains the most important biofuel policy issues at national and European level in the context of international climate change commitments, in particular the decisions on the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive (REDII) as a result of the trilogue procedure.

Operating performance of a tractor engine of emissions standard EU IV in biodiesel operation

Agriculture is particularly affected by climate change but is also required to make as much of a contribution to climate protection as possible. Approximately 1.6 million tonnes of diesel fuel is used in agriculture each year. This means that the optimum reduction of fuel consumption has been achieved. Fuel consumption tends to increase as updated crop protection product authorisations preclude reduced tillage and increasingly, weeds must be controlled mechanically. Due to the high energy requirements of ploughing and the use of equipment combinations for field treatment, electrification of the drives in this area is not foreseeable. The “defossilisation” of the drive must be done via the fuel in the vehicle tank and via the existing logistics. It therefore seems obvious that agriculture should produce and use its own energy, as it did centuries ago.

Approval list of commercial vehicle manufacturers for operation with biodiesel (B20 | B30 | B100)

The importance of biodiesel as a pure fuel has also declined significantly in the areas of heavy commercial vehicles and non-road vehicles. The current approval list of commercial vehicle manufacturers gives you an overview of approved commercial vehicles and engines as well as the compliance with emission standards.

New edition of the UFOP brochure "Good Reasons for Biofuels"

The Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (UFOP) has updated and reissued its consumer information "Good Reasons for Biofuels". The brochure provides the most important aspects on 24 pages justifying the need to continue promoting biofuels. These concern the desolate market situation in oilseeds and cereals, the importance of biofuels for agriculture, rapeseed as a supplier of GM-free protein feed, the current importance of sustainable biofuels in energy supply compared to other renewable energies, and the question of the use of biofuels in agriculture and forestry as a contribution to greenhouse gas reduction.

Supply report 2017/2018

European and world demand for biomass for the purpose of biofuel production in relation to supply in the food and feedstuff markets.

Biodiesel 2016/2017 - Report on Progress and Future Prospects

The assessment report provides information on the most important aspects of the national and European biofuel policy and the biodiesel markets. It is an excerpt from the UFOP business report 2016/2017 and includes the chapters “Biodiesel and Co.”, the report of the UFOP expert commission “Biofuels and Renewable Resources” as well as current national and European biofuel statistics.

Supply report 2016/2017

European and world demand for biomass for the purpose of biofuel production in relation to supply in the food and feedstuff markets.

Germany's most beautiful oil fields – Resource and climate protection in transport

When rapeseed blossoms in springtime, millions of bees and the wind together provide the foundation for rapeseed oil production, with the rapeseed grains from the pods being pressed in oil mills. This is how rapeseed oil and rapeseed meal is produced. Rapeseed oil has an energy density that corresponds approximately to that of diesel fuel. The liquid raw material is processed into rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), i.e. biodiesel, in just one process step called transesterification. According to the diesel fuel standard, diesel can include up to 7 % by volume biodiesel.

201705_COPA-COGECA Positionpaper REDII – Strengthening the role of agricultural and forest biomass in all bioenergy sectors to achieve the EU’s 2030 climate and energy goals

The proposal for a recast of the directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (proposal for a RED II Directive) is in contradiction with the EU’s objectives concerning the protection of the climate, energy security, and the promotion of a low-carbon and circular economy. Indeed, the Commission proposes to abandon the target to promote renewable energy sources in the transport sector, to reduce or scrap the use of conventional biofuels, to consider waste-based fossil fuels as renewable fuels, to restrict priority access, transmission and distribution of electricity produced from biogas and solid biomass to the national electricity grids, and to establish new sustainability criteria for biomass fuels. The promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) in the heating and cooling (H&C) sector lacks ambition. The rules proposed for the support schemes for electricity of renewable origin could completely exclude European biomass from this sector. Similarly, by introducing additional sustainability criteria and unnecessary administrative


The EU Commission proposal of 30th November 2016 to revise the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) foresees: ▪ The deletion of the 10% target for renewables in transport; ▪ Its replacement with a new target of 6.8% exclusively directed to low-emission and advanced biofuels in 2030 – the crop-based biofuels from the 1st generation not being accounted for in this target; ▪ A phasing down of crop-based biofuels through a digressive

TFZ-KOMPAKT 13 "Climate protection by rapeseed oil fuel"

The content of this brochure published by the Bavarian „Technologie und Förderzentrum Nachwachsende Rohstoffe“ - TFZ - (Technology and support center for renewable ressources) is concerning the reasons why farmers should use rape seed oil as an alternative sustainable fuel instead of fossil diesel and what are in total the GHG benefits if e. g. also the rape meal is taken into account (substitution method). These „effects“ had not yet been taken into consideration in Anex V of the REDII proposal.

Position of the German biofuel value chain on the European Commission's proposal for a recast of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II)

Today, biofuels contribute 5 per cent of the energy consumed in the transport sector (2015: 31.6 billion Kilowatt hours). This prevents 6.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions annually. Today, biofuels are the most important renewable energy source in transport; the contribution of renewable electricity is around one ninth of the contribution of biofuels (3.7 billion KWh annually). In 2015, 2.1 million tonnes of biodiesel, 1.2 million tonnes of bioethanol, 50 million cubic metres of biomethane as well as 2,000 tonnes of plant oil were used as biofuels ...

Evaluation and Progress Report 2015

On 5 June 2009, Directive 2009/28/EG of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of electricity from renewable sources (Renewable Energies Directive) was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. It is part of the EU climate and energy package adopted by the Council on 6 April 2009. This package consists of binding legislation to ensure that the EU achieve its climate and energy goals by 2020...

Evaluation and Progress Reports 2015-Extract: Background data 2015

On 5 June 2009, Directive 2009/28/EG of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of electricity from renewable sources (Renewable Energies Directive) was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. It is part of the EU climate and energy package adopted by the Council on 6 April 2009. This package consists of binding legislation to ensure that the EU achieve its climate and energy goals by 2020.

Rapeseed: A Versatile Crop

It seems as if more and more rapeseed is cultivated, but impressions are deceptive. The acreage used for the cultivation of rapeseed for years has not went beyond 1.3 to 1.5 million hectares. Rapeseed is especially known for its oil which makes up to about 42 percent of the seeds. But it is also made of high-value protein which is won during the pressing of the seeds. The so-called rape cake or rapeseed meal is a demanded GMO-free demestic protein feed.

Good Reasons For Biofuels

Human-caused climate change is a natural disaster which measured by geological standards is already occurring at a rapid pace and is already visible and noticeable. Agriculture is immediately affected by these changes. It is also part of the solution and contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The Climate Action Plan 2020 and Climate Plan 2050 show the challenges of adapting to the decarbonisation of road transport.

Biofuels study “Implications of political decisions on biofuels and raw materials markets” (summary)

Climate change, related environmental disasters and the results of the climate negotiations in Paris have increased concern, public awareness and the pressure to act with regard to climate protection measures. Renewable energies play a key role in this. Almost without exception, renewable energies markets today are characterised by complex regulatory and funding policy framework conditions.

Biodiesel 2015/2016 Report on the Current Situation and Prospects – Abstract from the UFOP Annual Report

The extract gives an overview about the development of the Biodiesel production and sales in Germany and describes the political discussion and decisions affecting Biofuels in Germany.

UFOP-Policy Information: COP 21 – Climate Protection Action Alliance 2050 – multiple measures – one objective: Sustainable biofuels play their part!

With the formal signing of the climate protection agreement on 22 April 2016, the process of ratification by 175 signatory states was initiated. Action plans for climate protection must be submitted by 2020, whereby, as a basic principle, the 1.5 degree target should be aimed for.

Study: Integrated Fuels and Vehicles Roadmap to 2030+

In October 2014, the European Heads of States communiqué agreed on the 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework. This framework set binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-binding targets for renewable energy consumption and improvements in energy efficiency. The overall GHG emissions reduction target of -40% (-43% for ETS sector and -30% for non ETS sector) in 2030 below 2005 levels was in line with both the ambition to reduce GHG emissions in the European Union (EU) by 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 and the vision of the EU White Paper on Transport.

Lowering the Boiling Curve of Biodiesel by Metathesis

There exist some disadvantages when Biodiesel is used in vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF). Especially during the regeneration phase, fuel bedabbles the piston walls and is taken over into the engine oil. Unlike fossil diesel fuel, biodiesel can not evaporate out of the engine oil because of its high boiling range. This leads to oil dilution and, furthermore, the formation of oligomers and oil sludge. The Thünen Institute of Agricultural Technology and the Technology Transfer Center Automotive Coburg (TAC) of the Coburg University of Applied Sciences modified the boiling behaviour of biodiesel by metathesis. This enables the new fuel to evaporate from the engine oil.

Biodiesel 2014/2015 Report on the Current Situation and Prospects – Abstract from the UFOP Annual Report

The extract gives an overview of the development of Biodiesel production and sales in Germany and describes the political discussion and decisions affecting Biofuels in Germany (e.g. Green-House-Gas Reduction Commitment, Climate Action Plan 2020 and 2050) and within the European Union (e.g. the "iLUC-directive and consequeneces").

DGMK-Information 10/2015

The use of Biodiesel as a blend component in heating oil is intensively investigated in several projects of the German Scientific Society of Mineral Oil, Natural Gas and Coal (DGMK). The brochure comprises the current projects of the corresponding DGMK-committee "Fuels".

Biodiesel 2013/2014 Report on the Current Situation and Prospects – Abstract from the UFOP Annual Report

Extracts from the UFOP report 2013/2014. The extracs gives an overview about the development of Biodiesel production and sales in Germany and describes the political discussion and decisions affecting Biofuels.

Rapeseed – Opportunity or risk for the future!?

From the start until the middle of May, the yellow blossoms of rapeseed stamp the agricultural landscape unmistakably across many regions of Germany. The crop was actually sown before winter, at the end of August, and the harvest will begin in July. The vegetation cycle comes to a close in 11 months.

Continuing a sustainable biofuel policy after 2020 UFOP demands statutory measures for habitat conservation instead of iLUC factors

The Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen (UFOP)) demands the continuation of a sustainable European biofuel policy after 2020. The union criticizes that, in its draft for a national climate conservation action program 2020, the Federal Department of the Environment doesn't take bioenergy or biofuels into account. Measures adopted in the framework of this program ultimately determine the climate conservation strategy beyond 2020, UFOP emphasizes.

ECOFYS Study – "Greenhouse gas impact of marginal fuels"

Biofuel emission savings „80% better than thought“: Production of biofuels from crops such as rapeseed bring savings of GHG emissions that are 80% higher than levels calculated by the EU’s executive since it underestimates emissions from fossil fuels that are first of all replaced by biofuels, e.g. from oil sands. The new study of the institute Ecofys, Netherlands, comissioned by the European Oilseed Alliance, EOA, (UFOP is a member of this alliance), the European Biodiesel Board (EBB) and the European Vegetable Oil&Protein Meals Industry (Fediol), confirms that the existing fossil fossil comparator of 83,8 gCO2/MJ underestimates the existing emissins of fuels from so called „marginal oils“. Ecofys proposes a conpararotot of 115 gCO2/MJ.

UFOP-Imagefolder "Sow ideas, harvest success!"

In 1990, the German Farmers' Association (Deutscher Bauernverband e. V.) and the German Plant Breeders' Association (Bundesverband Deutscher Pflanzenzüchter e. V.) founded the Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e. V.) or UFOP for short. In an association structure that remains unique to this day, UFOP represents the political interests of companies, associations and institutions that are involved in the production, processing and marketing of domestic oil and protein plants in national and international committees. All involved parties have recognised the opportunity of this new form of trusting cooperation in an interprofessional organisation. Since its inception, UFOP has developed and very successfully realised numerous ideas for the optimisation of agricultural production and development of new exploitation opportunities in the sectors of foodstuffs, energy/industry and animal feed.

Biodiesel Approval for the Operation of Heavy and Light Duty Vehicles (B100)

It has been around now for some 15 years – the manufacturers’ Biodiesel approval list; its updated version is now available. The use of Biodiesel has undergone massive changes in recent years. The approvals for passenger cars expired upon the introduction of new exhaust gas after-treatment systems, and the importance of Biodiesel as pure fuel decreased significantly, not least due to the economic framework conditions.

EU climate protection and resource conservation policies not to include biofuels in future?!

The UFOP sees a significant need for research and development in the case of biofuels of the second and third generation. As a result, both these and biofuels from waste oils and animal fats would be unable to fill the supply gap resulting from 2020 onwards, if the subsidising of conventional biofuels is to be phased out, as proposed by the EU Commission.

Reducing emissions using biofuel blends from engines with SCR catalytic converters

By optimising the dosing quantity of urea in the exhaust aftertreatment (AdBlue), a further reduction of nitrogen oxides at higher levels of biodiesel in diesel fuel is possible. These are the findings of the project undertaken at the Thünen Institute of Agricultural Technology in Braunschweig, which studied the effects of biofuel blends on the emissions of a commercial vehicle engine with an SCR catalytic converter. As part of this project, both regulated emissions as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mutagenicity of the exhaust gas were determined. While no consistent effect of the biofuel blend could be determined in terms of regulated emissions, the SCR catalytic converter did lead to significant reductions in the emission of PAHs and in the mutagenicity of the exhaust gas.

”indirect Land Use Change” (iLUC) – A critical inventory for objective political decision-making

With this article, advice is offered for the second round of legislation on the complex of ”Land Use Change” (LUC). It will be shown how the European Commission has derived factors for EU legislation for indirect land use change (so-called iLUC) using econometric model calculations. These factors do not possess adequate legal certainty and would make no contribution to solving the problem of world-wide land use change if they were to be introduced. Current legislation has not offered an adequate approach for providing a solution to the problem of land use change. It is therefore recommended that the Council and the European Parliament should task the Commission once again with developing a proposal for constructive regulations. This article will point out the aspects which must be fulfilled by any new regulatory proposals. In this respect, reference will be made to the fundamental principle of Good Governance. And it will be shown how, by means of regionally orientated regulations, the environmental policy pledges on ”Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions” (NAMAs) and ”Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation” (REDD+) could be supported in the relevant countries.

Without bioenergy, we would actually have less to eat …

The processing of rapeseeds generates 40 % rapeseed oil, which is used as a raw material for manufacturing biodiesel. The largest proportion (60 %) is rapeseed meal, which is used as valuable protein-rich animal feed.

Study: Determinants for the level and volatility of agricultural commodity prices on international markets

With the world-wide explosion in prices for agricultural commodities and basic foodstuffs in the period 2007 to 2008 and the subsequent collapse in 2009 caused by the recession, an intensive discussion has begun on the possible negative consequences of high and volatile prices for world food security. Especially in countries that import foodstuffs, violent protests and revolts have erupted in this respect against the drastic inflation of food prices affecting, above all, the urban population. And the recurring price high in 2010/11, which with minor fluctuations is still on-going, has revived this discussion, meanwhile also triggering world-wide political reactions. Export restrictions have thus been imposed in many exporting developing and emerging countries, which has in principle intensified the price rise even further, at the expense of the importing nations.

UFOP Filling Station Study: Germany-wide filling station sampling of „standard“ diesel fuels – comparative investigation of summer and winter fuel 2013

At 89 %, rapeseed oil is, as expected, the most important raw material of the biodiesel component in diesel fuel, followed by palm kernel oil at 6 percent and palm and soya oil at 4 and 1 percent, respectively. This is the result of the renewed investigation of the raw material composition of diesel fuel at public filling stations commissioned by the UFOP.

DBFZ: Influence of the re-evaluation of residual and waste materials on the GHG balance of first generation biofuels

The Deutsche Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) in Leipzig comes to the conclusion in its report "Determinants for the re-evaluation of residual and waste materials on the GHG balance of first generation biofuels" that a re-evaluation and correction is called for in regard to the methodology and values specified in the biofuel directives for calculation of the GHG balance for biofuels from residual and waste materials.

DBFZ: Revision needed regarding the GHG standard values for biodiesel from animal fats and vegetable waste oils

The German Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) has studied the effect of different transport expenditures involved in the collection of animal fats and vegetable waste oils on the greenhouse gas balance of biofuels produced from these. The DBFZ comes to the conclusion that the standard values specified in Renewable Energies Directive (2009/28/EC) have to be revised. The regulations of the Renewable Energies Directive envisage an option for the double crediting of biofuels from waste and residual materials to the fulfilment of biofuel quotas. The market development acknowledges the UFOP in its misgivings that double crediting, especially regarding biodiesel from waste food oils and fats, leads to considerable crowding-out effects in the market. Consequently, this comes at the expense of previous raw material sources for biodiesel. As a result, the competitive pressure surrounding raw materials has increased enormously, not least on the way the biofuel industry itself is operated.

Lowering of the Boiling Curve of Biodiesel by Metathesis

The boiling line of diesel fuels is relevant for the combustion in modern engines. Biodiesel shows a boiling behavior that is very diff erent to diesel fuel. To adapt the boiling line, metathesis reactions were carried out. Different products were obtained by varying the catalysts and the ratio of biodiesel to 1-hexene. As 20%-blends in diesel fuel some metathesis products were quite similar to the diesel fuel boiling line. The metathesis fuels were tested regarding interactions with other fuel components and engine oil. Additionally, the material compatibility was in focus. Corrosion effects on copper were within the specifi cation for diesel fuel.

ILUC and sustainability certification – consequences for all areas of use

Apart from the production of biofuels, the use of renewable raw materials is also increasing in other areas, such as their use as a substance. The aim is to reduce the burden on the environment, e. g. by manufacturing vegetable oil-based engine and hydraulic oils or phosphate-free detergents with the help of surfactants based on fatty alcohols. In creating a promotional backdrop for the use of renewable raw materials, demands on sustainability must therefore also be included.

Criticismof biofuels – checking the facts

Critics of biofuels – from mineral oil companies to environmental groups – express a wide variety of concerns with regard to ecology, ethics and economics. There is no doubt that biofuels are not a panacea for climate protection and energy transition in the transport sector. However, climate-friendly mobility structures of the future are unrealistic without biofuels. On closer inspection, the accusations made against these energy sources often turn out to be of a generalising nature. In order to avoid shortcircuited arguments, several claims made by critics are to be analysed here.

Biodiesel offers great internal engine potential for reducing particulate emissions

Tests carried out by regineering GmbH, Denkendorf, Germany, on a 1-cylinder test engine confirm great potential for reducing particulates by using biodiesel as opposed to diesel. The reason for this is the specific physical and chemical properties of biodiesel, which combine very well with modern diesel engines. Modern diesel engines are equipped with highly complex engine controls, which enable the engine operational mode to adapt to the specific properties of the respective fuel.

UFOP special publication "Biodiesel & Co" 2013

UFOP (Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen) has republished the sections of its 2012/2013 annual report that dealt with biodiesel and biofuels as a separate publication entitled "Biodiesel & Co". This special publication includes the sections on the market situation and outlook, the basic legal situation at national and international level, and a substantial statistical annex on biodiesel production and consumption, and on capacity development. The publication also includes the report on the analysis of the raw material composition of biodiesel, about the (B7) blend, which was made available at public petrol stations in the summer of 2013.

UFOP-funded project for the approval of biodiesel as a pure fuel for DEUTZ Agripower engines

The DEUTZ Agripower engines of the series TCD 7.8 L6, TCD 6.1 L6 and TCD 4.1 L4 can be approved for operation with biodiesel as a pure fuel. This is the result of the project successfully completed by DEUTZ AG. In the course of this project, the engines were subjected to extensive field tests in practice, with a conclusive result for DEUTZ common rail injection systems and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

UFOP Filling Station Study: Raw Material Diversity in Biodiesel Content Increasing

With 53 percent raw material content, rapeseed oil remains the most important raw material source for the production of biodiesel in Germany, followed by palm oil with 25 percent, coconut and soya oil with 11 percent respectively. This is the result of the study presented by the Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP). 60 filling stations of mineral oil companies throughout Germany – weighted according to market shares – were sampled and the biodiesel component in the diesel fuel as well as its raw material composition were determined on behalf of the UFOP.

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 490/2013 of 27 May 2013

The EU Commission has decided to impose anti-dumping duties on biodiesel imports from Argentina and Indonesia. According to the decision now published in the EU Official Journal, the protective duties will initially be introduced for a period of six months. They amount to about 105 euros per tonne of Biodiesel. In November 2103, the European Commission will decide whether the duties should be introduced for a period of five years.

Indirect Land Use Change (iLUC ) within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) – scientific robustness and consistency with international standards

Speaking today at the European Parliament on the evaluation of Indirect Land Use Change (iLUC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Prof Finkbeiner, Chair of Sustainable Engineering and Vice-Director of Environmental Technology at Technical University of Berlin, warned against strong uncertainty surrounding economic modelling, highlighting that “there is broad consensus in the scientific community that the current iLUC estimations are misleading”. In his recent study, comparing scientific robustness of iLUC models and their consistency with international GHG emission calculation standards, Prof. Finkbeiner provides a broad overview of loopholes and weaknesses that put reliance on estimated iLUC factors’ use for policy-making into question.

OWI annual report 2012

The annual report 2012 of the German Öl-Wärme-Institut (OWI) offers a detailed overview of the current state of research in the area of oil heating and the usage of FAME as a blend component. Here you can download the full report.

Comments and summary of the European Commission’s proposal to modify the EU biofuel policies of 17th October 2012

The Deutsche Biomasseforschungszentrum (German Research Centre for Biomass – DBFZ) was commissioned by the Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e. V. (UFOP) to explain the proposals by the EU Commission regarding the amendment of the Renewable Energies Directive and the Fuel Quality Directive in a technical paper, with commentary on the most important key points.

Element pollution of exhaust aftertreatment systems by using biodiesel (Offprint MTZ 6/2012)

Biodiesel is a particularly attractive fuel for agricultural machinery. However, the introduction of new emission standards has made the use of exhaust gas treatment systems in agricultural vehicles essential. The combination of biodiesel and exhaust gas treatment causes problems, because the biodiesel contains traces of inorganic elements These turn into ash during the combustion process in the engine, which can result in permanent damage to the components of the exhaust gas treatment system. Deutz and ASG have investigated the impact of current grades of biodiesel on the systems in real-life operation.

Preliminary Study

Since the agricultural price explosion of 2007/08 for basic foodstuffs and the subsequent decline in 2009, intense discussions have commenced concerning the potential negative consequences of high and volatile prices for world nutrition. Public and published opinion also appears to clearly point the finger at other guilty parties. The UN special correspondent de SCHUTTER, for example, maintains that the biofuel subsidy destroys the rainforest and drives food prices higher (Agra- Europe, Nov. 2011). And the Welthungerhilfe together with IFPRI clearly determine the following in their report on the World Hunger Index: “Biofuels are the main cause for higher and more volatile agricultural prices” (Oct. 2011). Contrary to this somewhat general fingerpointing, extensive literature on the factors determining the price level and price volatilities of agricultural commodities has meanwhile been published, which presents a somewhat more differentiated picture than the current discussion.

German Farmers Association's stand on iLUC

What does iLUC stand for? Why is it being discussed at present and what do the IFPRI and JRC studies reveal? Learn about the stand and the propositions of the German Farmers Association regarding iLUC.

International biodiesel markets – Development in production and trade

The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas – especially of large scale producers and traders – span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved.

Renewable Energy Projections as Published in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the European Member States

This report presents an overview of all data that have been published in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). In this version of the document (dated 1 February 2011) all 27 European Union Member States have been covered.

Biodiesel 2010/2011

Report on the Current Situation and Prospects - Abstract from the UFOP Annual Report: Extracts from the UFOP report 2010/2011. The extract gives an overview about the development of Biodiesel production and sales in Germany and describes the political discussion and decisions affecting Biofuels.

Final Report – A short study to assess the metal, phosphorus and sulfer content in biodiesel

The trace element content in fuels plays an important role in the release of exhaust after treatment systems. All metals which are emitted with the engine combustion can increase the exhaust gas back pressure in the after treatment system to inadmissible values due to the formation of ashes. Additionally, exhaust after treatment systems metal coatings and catalysts are contaminated and/or deactivated by phosphorus and alkali element. Consequently, in the project promoted by the Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP) and the Verband der Deutschen Biokraftstoffindustrie e.V. (VDB) “Determination of the emissions and the particle size distribution (fine dust) in the exhaust gas of a modern Euro-4-commercial vehicle engine with SCR emission control using biodiesel”1 (project manager Prof. Dr. Munack/Prof. Dr. Krahl, vTI Braunschweig), it was established that the ageing of the SCR catalyst, caused by the use of biodiesel with a content of 10 mg/kg phosphorus, was substantially accelerated with continuous 1000 operating hours. The content in RME corresponded to the maximum permissible limit value according to standard DIN EN 14214 (2003).

Final report – Screening of suitable monomer crosslinker systems and experiments on molecular recognition of acylated Steryl glycosides (ASG)

The subject of this project, which was initiated by the AGQM, was a feasibility study for the analysis of the field of application of nanostructured molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbent particles (MIPs) for the isolation of minor bio-oil components (useful and/or contaminant materials). As an example of minor components – in the present example Stigmasteryl-6-Opalmitoyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosid - ASG was selected as a contaminant in biooils. Acylated Sterylglycosides (ASG) are minor components in vegetable oils. After the transesterification of the bio oil during the bio diesel production the acyl radical is separated, creating Sterylglycoside (SG). SGs are briefly soluble in the biodiesel but thereafter slowly crystallise slowly from the FAME; this process can be accelerated by cooling. The residual SGs can lead to a blockage of filter materials. The separation of ASG from bio oils is therefore of significant importance for the quality improvement of the biodiesel.

Optimisation of the Post-injection during Particle Filter Regeneration can reduce the Fuel Entry into Engine Oil of Passenger Car Diesel Engines

The effects of the splitting of the engine-internal „late” post-injection in regeneration mode during the operation with the fuel blends B7, B10 and B30 (admixture content of RME from 7, 10 and 30 %-vol.) on the fuel entry into the engine oil as well as on the change in the oil viscosity were examined in stationary test runs at the Institute for Mobile Systems IMS, Chair of Reciprocating Machines at the Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg. The project was financed by the Union zur Förderung von Öl- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP). The bench tests, which were carried out in an operating point with small engine load in the regenerating mode, showed that the fuel entry increased into the engine oil with increasing RME content of the fuel. In this case the RME-concentration increased in the engine oil whereas the DF-concentration decreased.

An Analysis of iLUC and Biofuels

Regional quantification of climate-relevant land use change and options for combating it. The reason for this study is the EU Commission’s report on the impact of the EU biofuels policy which must be submitted by the end of 2010. To fight climate change, the EU has set its sights on further expanding the use of biomass in its policies – not just for the transport sector. In terms of the effects of EU biofuel policy, the question arises as to whether indirect land use change associated with biofuels should be combated through regulation and, if so, how. Direct land use change brought about by biofuels has already been addressed in the Renewable Energies Directive (2009/28). This study concludes that land use change (LUC) – or converting natural forest, grazing land or fallow land to cropland – continues to be a major problem in some regions of the world, not only for climate protection. The effects of land use change can be direct (dLUC) or indirect (iLUC). If the original use of the land was carbon-rich in the vegetation or in the soil (for example, forest) and the subsequent use is carbon-poor (pastures or crops), LUC increases the amount of carbon dioxide released and thus adversely affects the climate.

Environmental and economic assessment of biomethanol for the biodiesel production

The environmental assessment of biofuel production and use is becoming increasingly relevant as a result of the current political conditions at the European and national level. As a result of the intense public debate about the sustainability of an increased biofuel use, the European Commission introduced sustainability criteria for biofuels by the means of the EU Directive 2009/28/EC (RES-D). With the enactment of this directive and its implementation within Germany under the terms of the Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance (Biokraft-NachV), compliance with specific savings targets for greenhouse gas emissions will become obligatory for biofuels [1], [2]. For this reason it will be of vital importance for biofuel producer to be able to identify and make use of possible environmental optimisation potentials in the greenhouse gas balance of their fuel.

Approaches for optimising the greenhouse gas balance of biodiesel produced from rapeseed

With the enactment of the EU Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RES-D) and its enactment under German federal law in the form of the Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance (BioKraft-NachV), a number of binding sustainability criteria for the production and use of biofuels have been introduced. Amongst other criteria, the EU Directive as well as the German Ordinance includes specifications with regard to the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by means of biofuel use. Meeting these reduction targets will in future be a mandatory condition for the recognition of a fuel as part of the national biofuel quota.

Biodiesel 2009/2010

Report on the Current Situation and Prospects - Abstract from the UFOP Annual Report. Extracts from the UFOP report 2009/2010. The extract gives an overview about the development of Biodiesel production and sales in Germany and describes the political discussion and decisions affecting Biofuels.

Recommendations for a mexican biodiesel standard and the infrastructure required for its handling

Since governments and societies becoming more and more aware of the geopolitical, economical and environmental risks of oil dependency biofuels are gaining a rising attention. In Mexico the use of biodiesel as an additive to improve the lubricity of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel is considered. As the biodiesel quality affects the properties of the final blended fuel agreeing on common standard for biodiesel properties is an important step towards the creation of a national biodiesel market.

US Study on Greenhouse Gas Balance of Soy Based Diesel with Inconsistencies

Berlin, August 3, 2010. A new US study on the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soy-based diesel has been evaluated by Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ). The study published by the United Soybean Board (USB) concludes that biodiesel produced from soy in the United States achieves a greenhouse gas reduction of 52 % based on defaults. The USB study is analyzed for conformity with European Directive 2009/28/EC both for the methodology applied and the database on which it relies. As a result, the DBFZ finds that even if the method by which the GHG balance is calculated complies with the requirements of the European Directive, the underlying data involves some uncertainties and as such should be looked at more closely. Even if the assumptions and general conditions for the calculation method applied by the USB study are exactly those required by the European Directive, the DBFZ found inconsistencies in the underlying data that require closer examination.

Project report for the release of DEUTZ Euro IV common rail engines for biodiesel out

The availability of release declarations is the precondition for the future marketing of biodiesel as only fuel or as blending component in diesel fuel. With the target of obtaining the release for the TCD 2013 4V of emission level EURO IV with DEUTZ Common Rail injection system in commercial trucks, an engine and function test on the test rig and a field test for making sure of the biodiesel compatibility were performed by DEUTZ AG with financial assistance from the Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP).

Memorandum submitted by the Associations of the German Biofuel Industrie BDBe, UFOP and VDB concerning the Blending of Biofuels

The Associations of the German Biofuel Industries state: The proportion of biofuels in the fuels market has dropped dramatically since 2008, mainly due to the setback of the market for pure biofuels (B100 and vegetable oil). The blending of biofuels to fossil fuels cannot compensate the setback of the pure biofuels market. The minimum content of 10 % renewable fuels required by the Renewable Energies Directive (2009/28) by 2020 cannot be obtained on the basis of the applicable biofuels regulation under the German Federal Immission Control Act.


In its latest release, DEUTZ AG reports on the state of release for the use of biodiesel as pure fuel. The release lists the engine series for which biodiesel has been permitted as pure fuel and the future TCD 2015 series, for which the release has been announced for 2010. DEUTZ AG underlines that exclusively biodiesel complying with specification DIN EN 14214 must be used. Users are therefore recommended to make a careful choice of the suppliers and of the necessity of obtaining a letter of guarantee from their suppliers that the specification of DIN EN 14214 will be met. In this context, DEUTZ recommends to its customers in Germany to „provide additional safety of the quality of biodiesel by obtaining a certificate of AGQM (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Qualitätsmanagement Biodiesel e.V.)“.

Update on implementation agendas 2009

The International Energy Agency’s Task 39 "Commercializing of the 1st and 2nd Generation Liquid Biofuels from Biomass" is going to inform the important producer and consumer countries about the results of a survey of grant policy basic parameters for biofuels with a continually updated report. Interviewees for the survey were experts of the respectives countries. For Germany, the UFOP presented a report in collaboration with the chairman of the UFOP expert commission „Biofuels and renewable resources“, Prof. Dr. Munack (vTI) who is also a member of the IEA’s Task 39. The report considers the current politic state of discussion as far as possible at the time of delivery.

Oil Dilution of a Passenger Car Diesel Engine in Operation with blended Diesel Fuel B10

Final Report Abstract promoted by: Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR • Union zur Förderung von Oel- und Proteinpflanzen e.V. (UFOP • Volkswagen AG Wolfsburg • Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH. Currently Biodiesel (RME) is mixed according to EN 14214 and EN 590 with up to 5% of fossil Diesel fuel. With a further increase of RME fraction to 10% (B10 blend), there are uncertainties regarding the undisturbed longlife behavior due to variations of the physicochemical properties of RME in comparison to commercial Diesel fuel.

Background paper on quality improvement of rapeseed meal concerning the glucosinolate content

The increasing use of rapeseed meal as feedstuff for pigs and the development of the sales market for laying hens make a low content of glucosinolate an absolute necessity. Viewed in the light of the requirements of monogastric animals concerning the high digestibility of proteins and a high praecaecal digestibility of amino acids, stronger toasting in the oil mill process with the aim of accelerating the degradation of glucosinolate should strongly be Rejected.

UFOP Information on Paradigm Shift in Biofuels Policies

From a quota system to GHG reduction requirements and the impact on biofuels. Since biofuels have been criticised increasingly in the recent past, current proposals for the reorientation of biofuels policy at German and European levels require sustainability certification of biofuels.1 In addition to the assurance of sustainable biomass production for bioenergy, reduction of GHG is also highly emphasized. The tendency is to no longer set mere volume or energetic quotas for the use of biofuels. It rather becomes apparent that in future policies GHG saving targets or at least a minimum percentage of GHG savings for biofuels, which can be accounted for within the quota system or tax promotion will dominate.

Biofuels Roadmap

Joint Strategy between BMU/BMELV, VDA, MWV, IG, VDB and DBV. At the round table discussions on biofuels held on 17 January and 5 June 2007 respectively, a joint strategy to promote biofuels – the Biofuels Roadmap – was agreed between Germany’s automotive industry, oil industry, SMEs operating in the oil industry, agricultural sector, Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) and Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV). The Roadmap sets out the medium-term measures needed to promote the use of biofuels in Germany and the EU.

Property Demands on Future Biodiesel

Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) is currently not suitable for diesel particulate filters. The boiling characteristic of RME is an additional problem that presumably limits its further usability in Euro VI engines. Currently, hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) is in the state of obtaining acceptance as alternative fuel in the German legislation and is in the focus of discussions world-wide. HVO has physical and chemical advantages versus RME. In case RME should continue to be an appropriate fuel its molecule structure must be designed - probably by means of plant breeding. It is important to lower the boiling line by achieving chain lengths between 2and 16 carbon atoms and to have in mind the oxidation stability by focussing the number and the position of double bonds. Moreover, aspects of emissions and health effects must be kept in mind. Besides plant breeding, research should focus on highly efficient biotechnical transesterification, producing simultaneously shorter chain lengths. The phosphorus and metal contents of future biodiesel must become significantly lower than the specification limits that are valid at present.

Sustainable winter oilseed rape

These guidelines have been developed under the Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Initiative in cooperation with UFOP to support sustainable management practices for winter oilseed rape (WOSR) production.

Influence of the phosphorus content in rapeseed oil methyl esters during a 1000 hours endurance test on the function of a SCR-system measured by exhaust gas emissions and health effects

One characteristic of modern society is the striving for flexibility and mobility in all areas of the daily life. World-wide a steady rising of traffic can be noticed. In the EU, since many years the traffic increases much stronger than the production capacity. This traffic growth is dominated by the road haulage. Because of its efficiency and robustness the diesel engine became the dominating propulsion principle for trucks. The discussion about diesel exhaust related health effects led to a worldwide tightening up of the exhaust gas regulations, especially for heavy duty vehicles. Besides the emissions of particulate matter the limits for nitrogen oxides were substantially reduced. One possibility to keep these limits are engine measures.

Comparison of Shell Middle Distillate, Premium Diesel Fuel and Fossil Diesel Fuel with Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester

In its 2004 report on sustainable development the previous German government reached the conclusion for fuels that by 2020 the increase in efficiency in diesel and Otto engines as well as innovative power generation concepts will play a central role. Biofuels such as biodiesel will in the future particularly be incorporated as components of blends. The same conclusion was reached by the previous German government for the future use of both Gas to Liquid fuels (GTL) as well as Biomass to Liquid fuels (BTL). Concerning the above formulated theses, the new German government will probably come to a similar assessment, too.

Current situation and prospects for biodiesel and vegetable oils as fuels: From niche products to market players

The updated report of the UFOP “Biodiesel and vegetable oils as fuels” offers an overview of the current situation of biodiesel and vegetable oils. In 1990 when the UFOP was founded, biodiesel was an unknown product in Germany. With its inter-professional structure, the association had placed its reliance on this alternative fuel from the very beginning. In the meantime biodiesel has established itself as the biofuel in Germany.

Interested in real taste? Recipes with rapeseed oil!

The gently produced rapeseed oil gives a subtle pep to salad dressings, dips and marinades. In German kitchens, rapeseed oil has usually remained anonymous under the general designation "vegetable oil", but quality from Germany has a name, and tastes good too. That is why vegetable oils made from rapeseed are proclaimed more and more often. If you are interested in cooking with rapeseed oil you can try out the recipes in the booklet that can be downloaded here. The gently produced rapeseed oil gives a subtle pep to salad dressings, dips and marinades. In German kitchens, rapeseed oil has usually remained anonymous under the general designation "vegetable oil", but quality from Germany has a name, and tastes good too. That is why vegetable oils made from rapeseed are proclaimed more and more often. If you are interested in cooking with rapeseed oil you can try out the recipes in the booklet that can be downloaded here.

Comparison of the effects of rapeseed oil, olive oil and hydrogenated plant oil on postprandial lipids and fatty acid oxidation

Olive and rapeseed oil are both considered beneficial for lipid metabolism because of their high content of monounsaturated fatty acids. In this analysis were compared postprandial lipid metabolism after test meals with these plant oils including hydrogenated plant oil as a reference. Please download the detailed report here.

CO2 Mitigation through Biofuels in the Transport Sector – Status and Perspectives

This study analyses and compares all international, publicly accessible publications about all biofuels for transportation currently used (e.g. biodiesel and bioethanol as well as those potential future biofuels like BTL).

Comparison of biodiesel with different diesel fuels regarding exhaust gas emissions and health effects

The more stringent regulations for diesel engine emissions lead to the requirement that both fuels and engines must be developed jointly. In the future, so-called designer fuels will help to achieve the stringent limits. In this research, conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel, Swedish low sulfur diesel fuel MK1 and a specially designed diesel fuel were compared using a DaimlerChrysler diesel engine, running the modes of the ECE-R 49 test cycle. The results for regulated and non-regulated gaseous emissions, particulate matter size distributions as well as mutagenic effects of particle extracts are reported.

IFEU Report: New Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel

Every litre of biodiesel saves 2.2 kg greenhouse gases. Biodiesel (rapeseed oil methyl ester, RME), made from rapeseed, has become increasingly important as a source of fuel. During the last year alone its production has increased by approximately 30 % to 1.1 Million tonnes. In recent years there has been significant progress made in scientific research into biodiesel

Rapeseed Oil – a life of Fun and Enjoyment

This UFOP booklet you can download here was written for all who must or wish to take care of their cardiovascular system. Correct nutrition is an important aspect of this and can help to keep the cholesterol level balanced and to protect the arteries against encrustation. The so-called "Crete diet" has proved to be a particularly effective form of protection.